Scientists from the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York with the help of Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry have completed research which for the first time brings us nearer to understanding how some cells in the brain and nervous system become…
Photographic soap bubble studies by Santiago Betancur Z that look like planetsPhotographer and painter Santiago Betancur Z explores the intersection between science and abstract art in his photographic studies of bubbles, as well as producing life-size figure painting. In his photographs and video recordings, Betancur Z captures imagery of soap bubbles against dark backgrounds, showcasing the random kaleidoscopic color and light effects produced by the delicate spheres, and the chance allusions that occur in their surfaces
Pair with the first poem published in a scientific journal, an ode to bioluminescence.
Let it glow!
What’s your favorite?
Making way for new memories A study in this week’s issue of Science reveals that as old neurons are replaced by new ones, old memories are erased to make way for new ones.
Scientists had previously predicted that as old neurons are replaced by new ones, old memories are erased. To test this, the latest study looked at varying the amount of neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, in young and old mice and observed how this affected the forgetting of old memories.
The researchers demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs at a higher rate in young mice and slows down in older mice. Likewise, memories formed in younger mice are forgotten as they grow older. They then showed that neurogenesis in older mice could simply be triggered by increasing the amount of exercise they received. Consistent with the researchers hypothesis, increasing neurogenesis after the formation of a memory was sufficient to induce forgetting in the adult mice. The researchers also found a way to decrease neurogenesis in younger mice, finding that keeping old neurons reduced forgetting.
The above images shows the formation of new neurons (marked in green) for a 17 and 60 day old mouse taken from the study. DG and CA3 are different parts of the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for short- and long-term memory. The green cells are the new neurons and you can see there are lots more in the younger mouse (the new neurons are made to express green fluorescent protein, so you can tell them apart from old ones). The images on the let are a larger view of the hippocampus and the right ones show a smaller region where you can see individual cells (regular neurons are coloured grey as opposed to green).
Neuroscience amazes me the more I read (and blog) about it. I wonder how different memories are connected to different neurons. For example, if you could save some of the old neurons but replace others in a certain section of the hippocampus, would they keep only certain old memories, or a hazy recollection of all of their early memories?
Oral manifestations of childhood illnesses
1. Oral thrush - Caused by the Candida fungus overgrowing on the mucous membranes of the mouth. Also known as candidiasis when it occurs elsewhere on the body (such as vaginal candidiasis).
2. Varicella - Chicken pox. Have you ever had chicken pox in your mouth? It’s awful.
3. Stomatitis herpetica or Aphthosa [Herpetic stomatitis] - Caused by the same herpes infection of the mouth that causes cold sores, but blisters and mild ulceration can occur. This condition usually occurs when the child first contracts Herpes simplex I.
4. Stomatitis ulcerosa or Scorbutus - The oral manifestation of scurvy in children. The bone weakness, dry mouth, and immune dysfunction in scurvy often causes tooth weakening, loosening, and extreme gingivitis.
5. Follicular tonsillitis - The “standard” childhood tonsillitis, with infection of the palatine tonsils. If the infection doesn’t subside, removal of the tonsils is still the most common treatment.
6. Diphtheria - There are many oral manifestations of diphtheria, including “pseudo-membranes” covering the trachea, severely impairing breathing. The exotoxins exuded by Corynebacterium diphtherium can also cause thick, thrush-like patches in the pharyngotrachea.
Pediatrics: The Hygienic and and Medical Treatment of Children. Thomas Morgan Rotch, 1901.
This strange animal is a siphonophore, a relative of jellyfish. The most famous (infamous?) siphonophore is the portuguese man-of-war, but there are many species that live in the deep and are only seen on rare occasions.
Dr. Steve Haddock, one of the few people lucky enough to see animals like this on a regular basis, says that many species in this group (Erenna spp.) have a dark color, possibly from all the fish they eat.
- from deepseanews